This Ayurvedic branch, also known as Bhuta Vidya, is the same as Psychiatry in modern medicine. It focuses on the diseases and problems caused due to disturbances in the mental health of an individual.

According to Ayurveda, mental disorders are caused by spirits, micro-organisms, past Karma and other unexplained factors. Ayurvedic medicines, diet control, Yoga and meditation usually form part of the treatment. In order to cleanse and make the atmosphere germ free, Ayurveda advocates the use of certain herbs and plants as well as fumigation. Chanting of Vedic and Tantric mantras was also considered to have positive effects on the mental state.