Bala Chikilsa or Kaumara Bhrithya in Ayurveda is similar to Paediatrics in modern medicine and deals with complications related to pregnancy and child delivery as well as the treatment and diagnosis of diseases affecting children. It also deals with the care of women before and during pregnancy.

References to this branch of medicine can be seen in a number of ancient texts such as Charaka Samhitha, Susrutha Samhitha, Ashtanga Samgraha and Ashtanga Hridaya. Atharva Veda and Kausikasutra also have mentions of the common causes of ailments in children. Acharya Kasyapa is considered to be the foremost connoisseurs in this field.

Even though Ayurveda originated in the earliest of times, it clearly understood the importance of the mother’s well-being, both physical and mental, during pregnancy. Accordingly it suggests the proper diet, exercise and routine that needs to be followed during this crucial time.

Kaumara Bhrithya also deals with the methods to purify breast milk, treatment of diseases caused by vitiated milk and grahas. It also proposes treatment for various diseases affecting children such as teething problems, rickets etc. Nursing new born babies and the study of infertility also come under this branch of medicine.